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Hepatitis: Overview,Types,Symptoms

What is Hepatitis?


Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver and is caused by viral infections that affect the liver.

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis, or liver cancer. Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substances (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis.


What are the different types of hepatitis viruses?


Scientists have identified 5 unique hepatitis viruses, identified by the letters A, B, C, D, and E. While all cause liver disease, they vary in important ways.



Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is present in the feces of infected persons and is most often transmitted through the consumption of contaminated water or food. Certain sex practices can also spread HAV. Infections are in many cases mild, with most people making a full recovery and remaining immune from further HAV infections. However, HAV infections can also be severe and life-threatening. Most people in areas of the world with poor sanitation have been infected with this virus. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HAV.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted through exposure to infective blood, semen, and other body fluids. HBV can be transmitted from infected mothers to infants at the time of birth or from family members to infants in early childhood. Transmission may also occur through transfusions of HBV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. HBV also poses a risk to healthcare workers who sustain accidental needle stick injuries while caring for infected-HBV patients. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is mostly transmitted through exposure to infective blood. This may happen through transfusions of HCV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. Sexual transmission is also possible but is much less common. There is no vaccine for HCV.

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections occur only in those who are infected with HBV. The dual infection of HDV and HBV can result in more serious disease and worse outcome. Hepatitis B vaccines protect from HDV infection.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is mostly transmitted through the consumption of contaminated water or food. HEV is a common cause of hepatitis outbreaks in developing parts of the world and is increasingly recognized as an important cause of disease in developed countries. Safe and effective vaccines to prevent HEV infection have been developed but are not widely available.


Causes of Nonviral Hepatitis



Hepatitis can be caused by liver damage from excessive alcohol consumption. This is sometimes referred to as alcoholic hepatitis. The alcohol causes the liver to swell and become inflamed. Other toxic causes include the overuse of medication or exposure to poisons.

Autoimmune Disease

The immune system may mistake the liver as a harmful object and begin to attack it, hindering liver function.


Common Symptoms of Hepatitis


If you have forms of hepatitis that are usually chronic (hepatitis B and C), you may not have symptoms in the beginning. Symptoms may not occur until liver damage occurs.


Common Symptoms of Hepatitis


Signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis appear quickly. They include:

  • fatigue
  • flu-like symptoms
  • dark urine
  • pale stool
  • abdominal pain
  • loss of appetite
  • unexplained weight loss
  • yellow skin and eyes, which may be signs of jaundice

Since chronic hepatitis develops slowly, these signs and symptoms may be too subtle to notice.


Tips to Prevent Hepatitis


Practicing good hygiene is one key way to avoid contracting hepatitis. If you’re traveling to a developing country, you should avoid:

  • drinking local water
  • ice
  • seafood
  • raw fruit and vegetables

Hepatitis contracted through contaminated blood can be prevented by:

  • not sharing drug needles
  • not sharing razors
  • not using someone else’s toothbrush
  • not touching spilled blood

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Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever

What is typhoid fever?


Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium, Salmonella typhi. While the highest risk of acquiring typhoid fever is traveling to South Asia, there is an increased risk of getting the disease in East and Southeast Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. Worldwide, It affects more than 22 million people annually with about 200,000 associated deaths from the disease

What are the symptoms of typhoid fever?


typhoid fever

typhoid fever typhoid fever


  • Sustained fever
  • Headache
  • Malaise
  • Anorexia
  • Relative bradycardia (slow heart rate)
  • Constipation or diarrhea
  • Nonproductive cough
  • weakness
  • loss of appetite
  • abdominal pain
  • diarrhea or constipation

How is typhoid fever spread?


Anyone can get typhoid fever if they drink water or eat food contaminated with the S. Typhi bacterium. You can get typhoid fever if you eat food or drink beverages that have been handled by a person who is shedding S. Typhi in their stool, or if sewage contaminated with S. Typhi bacteria gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food.

Symptoms can occur within three days up to three months after consumption of contaminated food or water, usually in one to three weeks.


How can typhoid fever be prevented?


If you are traveling to an area where typhoid is common you may want to be vaccinated against this type of fever.

The following precautions are recommended:
  • Water should be brought to a rolling boil for one minute before drinking it.
    • Bottled water may also be used (bottled carbonated water is safer than uncarbonated water).
    • Other safe beverages include tea and coffee made with boiled water and bottled beverages with no ice.
  • Ask for drinks without ice unless the ice is made from bottled or boiled water.
    • Avoid popsicles or flavored ices that may have been made with contaminated water.
  • Eat foods that have been thoroughly cooked and are still hot and steaming.
  • Avoid raw vegetables and fruits that cannot be peeled.
  • When you eat raw fruits or vegetables that can be peeled and eaten, then please peel them by yourself

    • Wash your hands with soap first
    • Do not eat the peelings
  • Avoid foods and beverages from street vendors.
    • It is difficult to keep food clean on the road, and many travelers become ill with food purchased from street vendors.

  • A simple rule of thumb is: “Boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it!”


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Zika Virus Disease

Zika Virus Disease

Zika Virus: Key facts

  • Zika virus disease is caused by viruses transmitted mainly by Aedes mosquitoes, which bite during the day.
  • Its symptoms are usually mild and include muscle and joint pain, fever, rash, conjunctivitis, headache. usually last 2–7 days. Most people with Zika viral infection don’t develop symptoms.
  • Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause infants with microcephaly and other congenital malformations known as congenital Zika syndrome. Infection with the Zika virus is additionally related to other complications of pregnancy, including preterm birth and miscarriage.
  • In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the Zika virus disease an international public health emergency.
  • There is an increased risk of neurological complications for Zika virus infection in adults and children, including Gilroyen-Barre syndrome, neuropathy, and myelitis.



History of Zika Virus


The Zika virus disease is a part of the Flaviviridae family of viruses, which also includes the viruses that cause West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis.

The Zika virus was first discovered in 1948 in a rhesus monkey located in the Zika Forest in Uganda.

By 1981, it was inpatients in parts of Africa (including Uganda, Nigeria, Tanzania, Egypt, Central African Republic, Sierra Leone, and Gabon) and parts of South and Southeast Asia (including India, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia) Was seen. And the Philippines).

Outbreaks of Zika virus disease have been reported on the island of Yap in Micronesia in 2007 and French Polynesia in 2014. Starting in May 2015, an outbreak of the virus was reported in South America.

The Zika virus can spread from an infected person to an uninfected person by way of mosquito bites.

Aedes species of mosquitoes is an invasive day feeder that bites many people in a row, transferring viruses among humans.

There have also been reports of the virus being transmitted from mother to fetus before the baby is born, to baby during childbirth, through sexual contact, and from blood transfusions.



Zika Virus Disease


Approximately 1 in 5 people (20%) who become infected with the Zika virus will experience mild flu-like symptoms, which can include fever, itchy rashes, muscle, and joint aches, headaches, fatigue, and conjunctivitis (red, irritated eyes).

The symptoms typically appear within a week (2 to 7 days) after infection and last up to around a week.

The greatest concern regarding Zika virus disease is the infection’s suspected link to a serious condition called microcephaly (abnormally small skull) in babies born to women who have contracted Zika virus disease during pregnancy.

There have also been reports of Guillain-Barre syndrome following Zika virus infection. Guillain-Barre is a condition where the body’s immune system attacks the nerves, causing muscle weakness and possibly paralysis.

It’s not known exactly what causes Guillain-Barre, though some viruses have been reported to trigger it.



Zika virus disease is diagnosed through a blood test. It is recommended that certain people see a physician or go to a clinic if they are at risk of infection:

  • Individuals who have recently traveled to areas where the outbreak has been reported and who are experiencing flu-like symptoms should speak to a healthcare provider. This is to rule out other serious infections, such as malaria.
  • Women who are pregnant or who are planning to become pregnant and who have recently traveled to high-risk areas should check with their prenatal care team for more information about the risks associated with Zika infection.

There is currently no treatment or vaccine available for the Zika virus. Individuals in high-risk areas should take precautions to avoid exposure to mosquito bites, including wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants, wearing insect repellant that contains at least 25% DEET, avoiding standing bodies of water, and sleeping under a mosquito net.

In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Zika to be an international public health emergency. This was in response to the 2014 outbreak in French Polynesia and the 2015 outbreak in Brazil. These outbreaks were linked with a significant increase in cases of microcephaly and other neurological complications in babies born to women who had contracted Zika virus disease during pregnancy. The WHO emphasized the need to fast-track research on Zika infections to better understand the link between Zika and pregnancy complications, including microcephaly. Other necessary research includes the need for a better understanding of how the infection spreads



Zika Virus: Causes


The Zika virus is a type of flavivirus that was first discovered in a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947. Before the 2015 outbreak, Zika virus disease had been documented in parts of Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. The virus is known to infect both humans and non-human primates.

Transmission by Mosquito

The Zika virus is primarily spread between humans by the Aedes species of mosquito, which are present throughout many parts of the world. These are the same types of mosquitos that spread the viruses that cause dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever.

Aedes mosquitos are aggressive feeders that tend to bite several people in succession, which can spread the virus from an infected person to an uninfected person.

  • Aedes aegypti mosquitos are found in warmer climates and cannot survive cold weather.
  • Aedes albopictus mosquitos can survive in cooler climates.

Aedes mosquitos can travel between regions by accidentally being transported by humans, such as in a vehicle or with cargo.

Warm, wet weather and areas with standing or stagnant water (puddles, ponds, bogs, reservoirs, etc.) make it easier for mosquitos to survive and breed. Unlike some other types of mosquitos, Aedes mosquitos are active during the daytime, particularly during mid-morning and from late afternoon until twilight.

Once a female Aedes mosquito has laid its eggs, the eggs can survive up to a year without water. It only takes a small amount of standing water for the eggs to hatch and mature into adult mosquitos.

Other Forms of Transmission

The Zika virus is primarily a mosquito-borne illness. However, in rare cases, the Zika virus has been reported to spread by other means, including:

  • Through sexual contact
  • From mother to child through the placenta
  • From mother to child during childbirth
  • Via blood transfusion



Symptoms of zika virus

Incubation Period

The period of time between when a person is infected and when symptoms first appear is called the incubation period. The incubation for the Zika virus is thought to be between a few days and a week. In other words, symptoms may begin to appear somewhere between 2 – 7 days after infection.

Mild, Flu-Like Symptoms

Most individuals who become infected with the Zika virus will not experience any symptoms.

Approximately 20% of people (1 in 5) who are exposed to the virus develop symptoms. Those who do become ill most often have only mild, flu-like symptoms. These can include:

  • Fever (usually low-grade)
  • Headaches
  • Body aches (muscle and joint aches)
  • Fatigue
  • Malaise
  • Rash, which may itch
  • Conjunctivitis (red eyes)

Symptoms typically don’t require any special treatment and will go away on their own within about a week (2 – 7 days).


If You Experience Symptoms of Zika Virus Disease


Symptoms of Zika virus disease are seldom serious enough to require hospitalization. However, anyone who is experiencing symptoms and who has recently been in an affected area should talk to a physician. This is important to help track the spread of the virus and to rule out dengue fever, which can have life-threatening complications (see the Diagnosis and Treatment sections for more information).

Women who are pregnant, are experiencing symptoms of Zika virus disease, and who have recently been in an area with reported cases of Zika virus disease should speak to their prenatal care team as soon as possible. Zika virus infections during pregnancy have been linked with serious complications in newborns (see the Complications section for more information)

Symptoms of Guillain-Barre syndrome are the result of damage to the nervous system, and can include:

  • Unusual or tingling sensations in the extremities (called paresthesia), including the toes, feet, ankles, fingers, hands, and wrists.
  • Muscle weakness, particularly weakness that begins in the lower body and spreads upwards. (the weakness can sometimes progress into paralysis).
  • Difficulty with balance, standing, and walking.
  • Difficulty with speaking, chewing, swallowing, and facial expressions.
  • Bowel/bladder incontinence.

In severe cases, Guillain-Barre syndrome can affect heart rate, blood pressure, or even cause difficulty breathing. Symptoms tend to be the worst about 2-4 weeks after they begin and start to get better after about a month.



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Kidney Disease

Chronic Kidney Disease

Overview Of Chronic Kidney Disease:

Kidney disease, from basic terminology to risk factors and matching a treatment option to your lifestyle, Family Health Care has all the in-depth information CKD patients and their care partners need.


What Is Kidney Disease?

Understanding your kidney disease, or renal disease is the first step in controlling your health. When you have kidney disease and your kidney is no longer able to remove waste effectively from your body or to balance your fluids. The buildup of waste can change the chemistry of your body causing some symptoms that you may feel, and others that you don’t.

Kidney Disease


With kidney diseases, the first symptoms you may have are those you have not felt, but it will appear in tests that your doctor orders. Common problems are weak bones, high blood pressure, and anemia.

Indeed, it is important to find a kidney doctor (also known as a nephrologist). Closely partner with your doctor and your healthcare team as soon as possible.


But What Do Healthy Kidneys Do?

Your kidneys – two bean-shaped organs located in your lower back – produce your body’s filtration system, cleaning waste and excess fluids from your body and producing and balancing chemicals.

Healthy kidneys also:

  • Clean and filter your blood.
  • Produce urine.
  • Produce hormones.
  • Control blood pressure.
  • Keep bones strong.

Following a kidney-friendly diet, managing health conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure and non-smoking can help your kidneys function better and longer, even if you have kidney disease.

What Stage Am I In?

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) comes in stages and it is important to know your stage to decide the treatment. CKD has five stages, ranging from nearly normal kidney function (stage 1) to kidney failure (stage 5), which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Understanding your stage can help you learn how to control the progression of kidney disease. The stages of renal disease are not based on symptoms alone. Instead, they reflect how effectively the kidneys eliminate waste from the blood by using an equation that estimates kidney function, known as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Determining your GFR requires a simple blood test.




How did I get kidney disease?

High blood pressure and diabetes are the top causes of kidney diseases. Another form of CKD is glomerulonephritis, a common term for several types of renal inflammation.

Genetic diseases (such as polycystic kidney disease, or PKD), autoimmune diseases, birth defects, acute kidney failure, and other problems can also lead to kidney disease.


Ways to take control of kidney disease :

  • Choose a healthcare team that specializes in your kidney disease stage.
  • Don’t smoke.
  • Exercise.
  • Take medications as prescribed by your doctor.
  • Eat right by limiting foods high in protein, saturated fat, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium, all of which can put additional pressure on your kidneys.
  • Learn more about medicines if you have renal disease. Some prescription and over-the-counter medicines and herbal supplements can be very harmful. Check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking any new medications.


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Infectious Diseases

Overview of Infectious Diseases


Infectious diseases are illnesses caused by germs (microbes). It is important to realize that not all germs (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) cause disease. In fact, a host of bacteria normally live on the skin, eyelids, nose, and mouth and in the gut. These bacteria are called normal flora and are considered normal inhabitants. These normal flora are helpful to us! The bacteria in our bowels break down foods and form vitamin K, an essential vitamin for all of us. The normal bacteria on our skin and in our mouths protect us by preventing or decreasing the chance that we will become infected with harmful bacteria and fungi.   

The normal balance of bacteria can be upset by antibiotics and some illnesses. Viral infections often damage body surfaces and set the stage for infection by harmful bacteria.

Frequently, bacteria are present on a body surface such as the nose or throat or in the bowels, but there is no illness. This is called carriage of the bacteria, and the person with the bacteria is called a carrier. There is no illness in the carrier, but the carrier sometimes can transmit or spread the bacteria to another person. Many of the bacteria that are carried can cause infection and illness.

It is not always clear why the same strains of bacteria cause carriage in one child, mild illness in another, and serious infection in others. Sometimes it is because of factors in the child or the bacteria, but often doctors don’t understand the reasons.

Some important factors in the child include age, immunity, nutrition, genetic makeup, and general health. Newborns are at risk because their protective systems are not yet tested and are not always mature. Infants are at risk because they tend to put everything into their mouths and rarely clean their hands. Older children are less at risk because their hygiene is better and they have become immune through prior infection or carriage of bacteria.

Another important factor for a child is the use of medical devices such as catheters (tubes placed in blood vessels or into the bladder) and other tubes (e.g., from the nose to the stomach, from the nose to the lungs). These catheters and tubes provide a direct path for bacteria and fungi to get into the blood, bladder, or lungs. Medicines such as corticosteroids (used in asthma and many other conditions) and cancer chemotherapy can interfere with a child’s ability to fight infection. Even antibacterials can be a factor by killing the normal protective flora.


Factors in bacteria, viruses, and fungi include genes that determine how harmful (virulent) the microbe can be. Some germs make toxins that cause illness by themselves or contribute to infections caused by the germ. Examples include enterotoxins, which cause diarrhea; tetanus toxin, which causes lock jaw; and toxic shock toxin, which leads to low blood pressure and collapse (shock).

Infections are a normal part of childhood. Most children will have at least 6 to 8 respiratory (breathing tract) infections each year. These include colds, ear infections, sinus infections, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Infections of the bowels also are common.

When children gather together in child care settings and school, there is the opportunity for infections to spread from one child to another.

Not all infections are contagious (able to spread from person to person). Ear and bladder infections are not spread from child to child, while diarrhea and colds are easily spread.

The incubation period is the time it takes after a child is infected until he becomes ill. Sometimes the incubation is short (e.g., a day or so for the flu), while other times it is quite long (eg, 2 weeks for chickenpox and many years for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]). In some cases, a person is contagious during the incubation period, while in others the person is not contagious until the illness begins. The amount of time a child remains contagious depends on the infection and the child. Young children are often contagious for longer than older children.

Infections are sometimes so mild that there are few or no symptoms. Other infections cause more severe illness. Infections cause harm by damaging a person’s body parts (cells and organs) and causing inflammation. Inflammation is one way a child protects himself from infection. Inflammation usually destroys the infecting agent. Unfortunately, inflammation can be harmful to the child as well. Inflammation can harm organs, cause pain, and interfere with normal body functions.

Many infections come and go with no harm to the child. Others cause pain and, sometimes, death. Some infections resolve, but leave a child with organ damage. While many germs come and go, some germs stay with your child even after the illness resolves. For example, herpesviruses (herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, varicella, and human herpesvirus 6 and 7) remain in your child for a lifetime. If your child gets chickenpox, that virus stays inside his nerve cells after the rash and illness go away. The virus can reappear later in life as shingles (herpes zoster). 


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heart disease

Heart Disease Overview and Types

Overview of Basics of Heart Disease


Heart disease is a word used to describe many different conditions affecting the heart. Coronary heart disease is a common type of heart disease. This condition results from a buildup of plaque on the inside of the arteries, which reduces blood flow to the heart and increases the risk of a heart attack and other heart complications. Other forms of heart disease include:

  • irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias)
  • congenital heart defects
  • weak heart muscles (cardiomyopathy)
  • heart valve problems
  • heart infections
  • cardiovascular disease

Approximately 600,000 people die from heart disease every year, according to the Centers for Disease and Control Prevention (CDC). It’s a leading cause of death in both men and women.


Symptoms of Heart Disease


Heart disease is often called a “silent killer”. Your doctor may not diagnose the disease until you show signs of a heart attack or heart failure. Symptoms of heart disease vary depending on the specific condition. For example, if you have a heart arrhythmia, symptoms may include:

  • a fast or slow heartbeat
  • dizziness
  • lightheadedness
  • chest pains
  • shortness of breath

Symptoms of congenital heart defect may include skin discoloration, such as a bluish or pale color. You may also notice swelling in your legs and stomach. You might become easily tired or have shortness of breath shortly after beginning any type of physical activity.

If you have weak heart muscles, physical activity may cause tiredness and shortness of breath. Dizziness and swelling in the legs, ankle, or feet are also common with cardiomyopathy. Signs and symptoms of a heart infection can include:

  • tiredness
  • coughing
  • skin rash
  • irregular heartbeat
  • swelling in legs and stomach

Seek medical attention if you have any signs of heart problem. It’s important to address symptoms early since there are many types of heart diseases, each with its own set of symptoms.


Risk Factors of Heart Disease


Several factors increase your risk of heart disease, like a family history of the disease, age, or ethnicity. Other common risk factors include:

  • smoking
  • high blood pressure
  • high blood cholesterol
  • diabetes
  • poor diet
  • lack of exercise
  • obesity
  • stress
  • poor hygiene (some viral and bacterial infections can affect the heart)

Diagnosing Heart Disease


Different tests are used to diagnose heart disease, and your doctor may choose a particular test based on your symptoms and a review of your family history. After a blood test and chest X-ray, other tests include:

  • electrocardiogram (EKG): a test that helps doctors identify problems with your heart’s rhythm
  • echocardiogram: a test that uses ultrasound waves to view the flow of blood through the heart
  • cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan: an X-ray test that creates cross sectional views of your heart
  • cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): a test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create images of your heart and surrounding tissue
  • stress test: a test that monitors your heart during periods of strenuous activity or exercise

How to Treat Heart Disease




Heart disease treatments depend on the condition, but may include lifestyle changes and medications. Lifestyle changes can include:

  • eating a healthy diet rich in fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, fruits, and vegetables. Choose foods that are low in fat, sodium, and cholesterol to help control your blood pressure.
  • increasing physical activity to maintain a healthy weight, reduce your risk of diabetes, and improve cholesterol levels. Aim for at least 60 minutes of activity per week, says the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.
  • quitting smoking can lower your risk of heart disease and complications.
  • drinking alcohol in moderation can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk for heart disease. Men should drink no more than two, and women no more than one alcoholic beverage per day, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
  • learning how to deal with stress, either through exercise, medication, stress management therapy or support groups

When lifestyle changes do not improve your conditions, doctors may prescribe certain medications to reduce your risk of a heart attack or stroke. These include medications that lower blood pressure or prevent blood clotting.

Sometimes, medical procedures are necessary to treat certain types of heart disease. These include an angioplasty (a flexible tube inserted in arteries to improve blood flow) or a coronary artery bypass surgery (blood vessels surgically moved from one area of the body to another to improve blood flow to the heart).


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Malaria, Chikungunya, Dengue: Causes, Symptoms And Possible Methods Of Treatment

Malaria, Chikungunya, Dengue Causes complete information.


With the heavy rainfall received by the city this year, Delhi has turned into a breeding ground for mosquitoes.

Malaria, Chikungunya, Dengue Causes

A flock of chikungunya, dengue, malaria patients are being flocked to hospitals/umpteenth are being affected. The problem is that these mosquito-borne diseases are difficult to diagnose, given the similar symptoms they have with fever being an important part.


Malaria, Chikungunya, Dengue Causes



It’s a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

Malaria causes symptoms that include fever, fatigue, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases, it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death. Anopheles mosquitoes bite only during the day and symptoms begin to appear ten to fifteen days after its bite.





In cases of blood transfusion, the female Aedes mosquito, which usually bites during the day, reaches into the human body and bites from infected humans.
The disease develops into a deadly dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets, and blood plasma leakage or dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs.



Chikungunya is also caused by the bite of the female Aedes mosquitoes that cause dengueThis ailment mostly affects the muscle cells of the body.





The most common symptom of malaria is high-grade fever. The fever does not keep on at a stretch and happens coming-and-going over a period of 2-3 days.

Fever goes on with cold and fever. In severe cases, the patient suffers from the illness, Mental-confusion (in the case of cerebral malaria), and kidney flawed.


In the initial days, the patient suffers from fever for 3 to 4 days, then, there’s normal pain or retro-orbital pain within the patient’s body.

In some acute cases, there can also maybe a decrease in urine output, and that I have an increased tendency to bleeding with respiratory problems and general symptoms.



Some of the major symptoms of Chikungunya are as follows –

  • Excessive body pain
  • Swollen joints
  • Includes rashes all over the body.


The body pain, in this case, is more severe than that in dengue cases. In chikungunya joints pain is more pronounced, while in cases of dengue, patients might even feel retro-orbital pain, that is, pain behind the eyes.


How to Prevent them

Reducing the mosquito population involves getting rid of mosquito breeding areas.

The best method of protection is to avoid mosquito bites and to reduce the mosquito population.

  • Empty watering cans and buckets and store them under shelter.
  • Don’t allow blocking scupper drains.
  • Loosen soil from potted plants.
  • Remove water from plant pots.
  • Change water in flower vases every other day.
  • Leaves should not block anything.
  • Avoid heavily populated residential areas.

Thank You For Reading This Article ( Malaria, Chikungunya, Dengue Causes)



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How to Fight Dengue?

Dengue fever is a disease caused by viruses that are transmitted to people by mosquitoes (Aedes species). Dengue fever usually causes fever (high, about 104 F-105 F), skin rash ands pain (headaches and often severe muscle and joint pains).


It is also called breakbone fever” or “dandy fever.Dengue Fever is a viral infection that is becoming alarmingly, increasingly prevalent in the Indian community in recent years. It can be extremely dangerous, as reflected by the huge number of deaths it causes globally,Dengue has become a global problem since the Second World War and is common in more than 110 countries. Each year between 50 and 528 million people are infected and approximately 10,000 to 22,000 die.


Dengue Symptoms


If you contract dengue fever, symptoms usually begin about four to seven days after the initial infection. In many cases, symptoms will be mild. They may be mistaken for symptoms of the flu or another infection. Young children and people who have never experienced infection may have a milder illness than older children and adults. Symptoms generally last for about 10 days and can include:

  • sudden, high fever (up to 106 degrees Fahrenheit)
  • severe headache
  • swollen lymph glands
  • severe joint and muscle pains
  • skin rash (appearing between two and five days after the initial fever)
  • mild to severe nausea
  • mild to severe vomiting
  • mild bleeding from the nose or gums
  • mild bruising on the skin
  • febrile convulsions
  • Bleeding from mouth or gums

Causes of Dengue Disease


Dengue is spread by several species of mosquito of the Aedes type, principally A. aegypti.The virus has five different types. infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others. Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications. When an infected mosquito bites a human, the virus is transmitted to that person. Mostly, people suffering from dengue disease get better in 2 weeks. But, some may feel depressed and fatigue for months after the infection.


Dengue Test


The diagnosis of dengue fever may be confirmed by microbiological laboratory testing. This can be done by virus isolation in cell cultures, nucleic acid detection byPCR, viral antigen detection (such as for NS1) or specific antibodies (serology).


How to Prevent Dengue Fever


There is no vaccine to prevent dengue fever. The best method of protection is to avoid mosquito bites and to reduce the mosquito population.

  • Empty watering cans and buckets and store them under shelter
  • Don’t allow to block scupper drains
  • Loosen soil form potted plants
  • Remove water from plant pots
  • Change water in flower vases every other day
  • Leaves should not block anything
  • avoid heavily populated residential areas
  • use mosquito repellent indoors and outdoors
  • wear long-sleeved shirts and pants tucked into socks
  • use air conditioning instead of opening windows
  • ensure that window and door screens are secure, and any holes are repaired
  • use mosquito nets if sleeping areas are not screened

Reducing the mosquito population involves getting rid of mosquito breeding areas. These areas include any place that still water can collect, such as:

  • birdbaths
  • pet dishes
  • empty planters
  • flower pots
  • cans
  • any empty vessel

These areas should be checked, emptied, or changed regularly.

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