Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a term used to describe a yellowish tinge to the skin and sclerae (the white part of the eye) that is caused by hyperbilirubinemia (an excess of bilirubin in the blood). Body fluids may also be yellow.
The color of the skin and sclerae varies depending on levels of bilirubin; mildly elevated levels display yellow skin and sclerae, while highly elevated levels display brown.
Bilirubin is a waste product that remains in the bloodstream after the iron is removed from the hemoglobin, which is released from the degradation of erythrocytes (cells that contain hemoglobin and can carry oxygen to the body).
When there is an excess of bilirubin it may leak out into surrounding tissues, saturating them with this yellow substance.
Bilirubin that is circulating freely in the blood is called unconjugated bilirubin. One of the liver’s functions is to filter out waste, such as bilirubin, from the blood.
Once it is in the liver, other chemicals latch on to the bilirubin, creating a substance called conjugated bilirubin, which is secreted in bile (a digestive juice released by the liver) and then excreted.
Jaundice In Newborn Baby
Jaundice is most common in newborns in most cases. It occurs as a result of the liver being underdeveloped and not fully functional. In most cases, it is seen that there is nothing to worry about neonatal jaundice as it does not require any form of treatment, and it usually resolves within a week or two.
Jaundice In Adults
Jaundice in adults is usually a sign of an underlying health problem. There are three types of jaundice:-
- Hemolytic: Too much bilirubin is produced, which results in the breakdown of large numbers of red blood cells.
- Hepatocellular: Hepatocellular jaundice is the most common type of jaundice and occurs when bilirubin is unable to release liver cells and cannot be removed from the body by the kidneys.
- Obstructive: Obstructive jaundice occurs when there is a blockage in the bile duct, which stops bilirubin from leaving the liver. This type of jaundice is usually caused by a tumor, gallstones, bile duct, or cyst in the pancreas.
The most pervasive sign of jaundice is a yellow tinge to the skin and sclerae (whites of the eyes). This usually starts at the head and spreads down the body.
There are three main jaundice overview types of symptoms:
- Hepatocellular jaundice – a type of jaundice that occurs as a result of liver disease or injury.
- Hemolytic jaundice – a type of jaundice that occurs as a result of hemolysis (an accelerated breakdown of erythrocytes – red blood cells) leading to an increase in production of bilirubin.
- Obstructive jaundice – a type of jaundice that occurs as a result of an obstruction in the bile duct (a system of tubes that carries bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine), which prevents bilirubin from leaving the liver.
Other Symptoms Include:
- Yellow tinge to the skin and the whites of the eyes.
- Pruritus (itchiness).
- Abdominal pain – typically indicates a blockage of the bile duct.
- Weight loss.
- Paler than usual stools.
- Dark urine.
Jaundice most often occurs as a result of an underlying disorder that either causes tissues to become over-saturated with bilirubin or prevents the liver from disposing of bilirubin.
Some underlying conditions that may cause jaundice are:
- Acute inflammation of the liver – may impair the ability of the liver to conjugate and secrete bilirubin, resulting in a buildup of bilirubin.
- Inflammation of the bile duct – may prevent the secretion of bile and removal of bilirubin, causing jaundice.
- Obstruction of the bile duct – prevents the liver from disposing of bilirubin, which results in hyperbilirubinemia.
- Hemolytic anemia – production of bilirubin increases when large quantities of erythrocytes are broken down.
- Gilbert’s syndrome – an inherited condition that impairs the ability of enzymes (biomolecules that provoke chemical reactions between substances) to process the excretion of bile.
- Cholestasis-a condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is interrupted. The bile containing conjugated bilirubin remains in the liver instead of being excreted etc…
Adult: Jaundice is related to the function of the liver, so it is essential that you maintain this vital organ’s health by eating a balanced diet, exercising at least 30 minutes five times a week, and refraining from exceeding recommended amounts of alcohol.
Newborn baby: It is not possible to prevent newborns from being affected by jaundice. Ways to prevent it from becoming serious with current precautions are:
- The baby should be breastfed 8-12 times each day for the primary few days. This helps to stay the kid hydrated which is important for the straightforward removal of bilirubin from his/her body.
- If the mother is not breastfeeding the newborn, mothers may give them 2 ounces of formula every two to three hours within the first week. Premature babies or smaller babies require less formula and therefore the children who are breastfeeding also require less amount of formula.